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Monday, July 08, 2024

Philippine geography 101: Similar names of Philippine cities and municipalities

As of July 8th, 2024, there are several cities and municipalities in the Philippines that share the same names but are located in different provinces. This phenomenon can sometimes lead to confusion in geography, governance, and postal services. Below, I have grouped these locations into two categories: cities and municipalities.


There are eight cities around the Philippines that share the same names, leading to interesting cases of mistaken identity and unique cultural overlaps. These cities, despite sharing names, often have distinct characteristics, histories, and cultural backgrounds. Let's explore a few examples:
  1. Naga City, Cebu
  2. Naga City, Camarines Sur (only in geograhy)
  3. San Carlos City, Negros Occidental
  4. San Carlos City, Pangasinan
  5. San Fernando City, La Union
  6. San Fernando City, Pampanga
  7. Talisay City, Cebu
  8. Talisay City, Negros Occidental


Having 310 municipalities that share the same name is a fascinating phenomenon that showcases the spread of certain place names across different regions and cultures. This widespread naming can result from various factors such as colonization, migration, homage to notable places or figures, and local traditions. Let's delve into the implications and examples of this naming trend.
  1. Alcala, Cagayan
  2. Alcala, Pangasinan
  3. Alegria, Cebu
  4. Alegria, Surigao del Norte
  5. Alicia, Bohol
  6. Alicia, Isabela
  7. Alicia, Zamboanga Sibugay
  8. Anda, Bohol
  9. Anda, Pangasinan
  10. Balete, Aklan
  11. Balete, Batangas
  12. Banga, Aklan
  13. Banga, South Cotabato
  14. Baras, Catanduanes
  15. Baras, Rizal
  16. Bato, Camarines Sur
  17. Bato,Catanduanes
  18. Bontoc, Mountain Province
  19. Bontoc, Southern Leyte
  20. Buenavista, Agustan del Norte
  21. Buenavista, Bohol
  22. Buenavista, Guimaras (capital)
  23. Buenavista, Marinduque
  24. Buenavaista, Quezon
  25. Burgos, Ilocos Norte
  26. Burgos, La Union
  27. Burgos, Pangasinan
  28. Burgos, Surigao del Norte
  29. Cabatuan, Iloilo
  30. Cabatuan, Isabela
  31. Candelaria, Quezon
  32. Candelaria, Zambales
  33. Caramoan, Camarines Sur
  34. Caramona, Catanduanes
  35. Carmen, Agusan del Norte
  36. Carmen, Bohol
  37. Carmen, Cebu
  38. Carmen, Cotabato
  39. Carmen, Davao del Norte
  40. Carmen, Surigao del Sur
  41. Casiguran, Aurora
  42. Casiguran, Sorsogon
  43. Catarman, Camiguin
  44. Catarman, Northern Samar
  45. Clarin, Bohol
  46. Clarin, Misamis Occidental
  47. Claveria, Cagayan
  48. Claveria, Masbate
  49. Clavera,  Misamis Oriental
  50. Compostela, Cebu
  51. Compostela, Davao de Oro
  52. Concepcion, Iloilo
  53. Concepcion, Misamis Occidental
  54. Concepcion, Romblon
  55. Concepcion, Tarlac
  56. Cortes, Bohol
  57. Cortes, Surigao del Sur
  58. Dolores, Abra
  59. Dolores, Eastern Samar
  60. Dolors, Quezon
  61. Esperanza, Agusan del Sur
  62. Esperanza, Masbate
  63. Esperanza, Sultan Kudarat
  64. Hagonoy, Bulacan
  65. Hagonoy, Davao del Sur
  66. Infanta, Pangasinan
  67. Infanta, Quezon
  68. Kalayaan, Laguna
  69. Kalayaan Palawan
  70. Kapatagan, Lanao del Norte
  71. Kapatagan, Lanao del Sur
  72. La Libertad, Negros Oriental
  73. La Libertad, Zamboanga del Norte
  74. La Paz, Abra
  75. La Paz, Agusan del Sur
  76. La Paz, Leyte
  77. La Paz, Tarlac
  78. Lemery, Batangas
  79. Lemery, Iloilo
  80. Libertad, Antique
  81. Libertad, Misamis Oriental
  82. Liloan, Cebu
  83. Liloan, Southern Leyte
  84. Looc, Occidental Mindoro
  85. Looc, Romblon
  86. Loreto, Agusan del Sur
  87. Loreto, Dinagat Islands
  88. Luna, Apayao
  89. Luna, Isabela
  90. Luna, La Union
  91. Maasim, Sarangani
  92. Maasim, Iloilo
  93. Mabini, Batangas
  94. Mabini, Bohol
  95. Mabini, Davao de Oro
  96. Mabini, Pangasinan
  97. Magallanes, Agusan del Norte
  98. Magallanes, Cavite
  99. Magallanes, Sorsogon
  100. Magsaysay, Davao del Sur
  101. Magsaysay, Lanao del Norte
  102. Magsaysay, Misamis Oriental
  103. Magsaysay, Occidental Mindoro
  104. Magsaysay, Palawan
  105. Malitbog, Bukidnon
  106. Malitbog, Southern Leyte
  107. Mercedes, Camarines Norte
  108. Mercedes, Eastern Samar
  109. Morong, Bataan
  110. Morong, Rizal
  111. Morong, Samar
  112. Naguilian, Isabela
  113. Naguilian, La Union
  114. Pamplona, Cagayan
  115. Pamplona, Camarines Sur
  116. Pamplona, Negros Oriental
  117. Pandan, Antique
  118. Pandan, Catanduanes
  119. Pilar, Abra
  120. Pilar, Bataan
  121. Pilar, Bohol
  122. Pilar, Capiz
  123. Pilar, Cebu
  124. Pilar, Sorsogon
  125. Pilar, Surigao del Norte
  126. Pitogo, Quezon
  127. Pitogo, Zamboanga del Sur
  128. Placer, Masbate
  129. Placer, Surigao del Norte
  130. Plaridel, Bulacan
  131. Plaridel, Misamis Occidental
  132. Plaridel, Quezon
  133. Pontevedra, Capiz
  134. Pontevedra, Negros Occidental
  135. President Roxas, Capiz
  136. President Roxas, Cotabato
  137. Quezon, Bukidnon
  138. Quezon, Isabela
  139. Quezon, Nueva Ecija
  140. Quezon, Nueva Vizcaya
  141. Quezon, Palawan
  142. Quezon, Quezon
  143. Quirino, Ilocos Sur
  144. Quirino, Isabela
  145. Rizal, Cagayan
  146. Rizal, Kalinga
  147. Rizal, Laguna
  148. Rizal, Nueva Ecija
  149. Rizal, Occidental Mindoro
  150. Rizal, Palawan
  151. Rizal, Zamboanga del Norte
  152. Rosario, Agusan del Sur
  153. Rosario, Batangas
  154. Rosario, Cavite
  155. Rosario, La Union
  156. Rosario, Nortern Samar
  157. Roxas, Isabela
  158. Roxas, Oriental Mindoro
  159. Roxas, Palawan
  160. Roxas, Zamboanga del Norte
  161. Salcedo, Eastern Samar
  162. Salcedo, Ilocos Sur
  163. San Agustin, Isabela
  164. San Agustin, Romblon
  165. San Agustin, Surigao del Sur
  166. San Andres, Catanduanes
  167. San Andres, Quezon
  168. San Andres, Romblon
  169. San Antonio, Northern Samar
  170. San Antonio, Nueva Ecija
  171. San Antonio,  Quezon
  172. San Antonio, Zambales
  173. San Enrique, Iloilo
  174. San Enrique, Negros Occidental
  175. San Fernando, Bukidnon
  176. San Fernando, Camarines Sur
  177. San Fernando, Cebu
  178. San Fernando, Masbate
  179. San Fernando, Romblon
  180. San Francisco, Agusan del Sur
  181. San Francisco, Cebu
  182. San Francisco, Quezon
  183. San Francisco, Southern Leyte
  184. San Francisco, Surigao del Norte
  185. San Ildefonso, Bulacan
  186. San Ildefonso, Ilocos Sur
  187. San Isidro, Abra
  188. San Isidro, Bohol
  189. San Isidro, Davao del Norte
  190. San Isidro, Davao Oriental
  191. San Isidro, Isabela
  192. San Isidro, Leyte
  193. San Isidro, Nortern Samar
  194. San Isidro, Nueva Ecija
  195. San Isidro, Surigao del Norte
  196. San Jacinto, Masbate
  197. San Jacinto, Pangasinan
  198. San Jose, Batangas
  199. San Jose, Camarines Sur
  200. San Jose, Dinagat Islands (capital)
  201. San Jose, Negros Oriental
  202. San Jose, Northern Samar
  203. San Jose, Romblon
  204. San Jose, Tarlac
  205. San Jose, Occidental Mindoro
  206. San Juan, Abra
  207. San Juan, Batangas
  208. San Juan, Ilocos Sur
  209. San Juan, La Union
  210. San Juan, Siquijor
  211. San Juan, Southern Leyte
  212. San Luis, Agusan del Sur
  213. San Luis, Aurora
  214. San Luis, Batangas
  215. San Luis, Pampanga
  216. San Manuel, Isabela
  217. San Manual, Tarlac
  218. San Mateo, Isabela
  219. San Mateo, Rizal
  220. San Miguel, Bohol
  221. San Miguel, Bulacan
  222. San Miguel, Catanduanes
  223. San Miguel, Iloilo
  224. San Miguel, Leyte
  225. San Miguel, Surigao del Sur
  226. San Miguel, Zamboanga del Sur
  227. San Narciso, Quezon
  228. San Narcisco, Zambales
  229. San Nicolas, Batangas
  230. San Nicolas, Ilocos Norte
  231. San Nicolas, Pangasinan
  232. San Pablo, Isabela
  233. San Pablo, Zamboanga del Sur
  234. San Pascual, Batangas
  235. San Pascual, Masbate
  236. San Quintin, Abra
  237. San Quintin, Pangasinan
  238. San Rafael, Bulacan
  239. San Rafael, Iloilo
  240. San Remigio, Antique
  241. San Remigio, Cebu
  242. San Vicente, Camarines Norte
  243. San Vicente, Ilocos Sur
  244. San Vicente, Northern Samar
  245. San Vicente, Palawan
  246. Santa Ana, Cagayan
  247. Santa Ana, Pampanga
  248. Santa Barbara, Iloilo
  249. Santa Barbara, Pangasinan
  250. Santa Catalina, Ilocos Sur
  251. Santa Catalina, Negros Occidental
  252. Santa Cruz, Davao del Sur
  253. Santa Cruz, Ilocos Sur
  254. Santa Cruz, Laguna (capital)
  255. Santa Cruz, Marindugue
  256. Santa Cruz, Occidental Mindoro
  257. Santa Cruz, Zambales
  258. Santa Fe, Cebu
  259. Santa Fe, Leyte
  260. Santa Fe, Nueva Vizcaya
  261. Santa Fe, Romblon
  262. Santa Maria, Bulacan
  263. Santa Maria, Davao Occidental
  264. Santa Maria, Ilocos Sur
  265. Santa Maria, Isabela
  266. Santa Maria, Laguna
  267. Santa Maria, Pangasinan
  268. Santa Maria, Romblon
  269. Santa Rita, Pampanga
  270. Santa Rita, Samar
  271. Santa Teresita, Batangas
  272. Santa Teresita, Cagayan
  273. Santiago, Agusan del Norte
  274. Santiago, Ilocos Sur
  275. Santo Domingo, Albay
  276. Santo Domingo, Ilocos Sur
  277. Santo Domingo, Nueva Ecija
  278. Santo Niño, Cagayan
  279. Santo Niño, Samar
  280. Santo Niño, South Cotabato
  281. Santo Tomas, Davao del Norte
  282. Santo Tomas, Isabela
  283. Santo Tomas, La Union
  284. Santo Tomas, Pampanga
  285. Santo Tomas, Pangasinan
  286. Sison, Pangasinan
  287. Sison, Surigao del Norte
  288. Socorro, Oriental Mindoro
  289. Socorro, Surigao del Norte
  290. Sogod, Cebu
  291. Sogod, Southern Leyte
  292. Tagoloan, Lanao del Norte
  293. Tagoloan, Lanao del Sur
  294. Tagoloan, Misamis Oriental
  295. Talisay,  Batangas
  296. Talisay, Camarines Norte
  297. Taytay, Palawan
  298. Taytay, Rizal
  299. Tubod, Lanao del Norte (capital)
  300. Tubod, Surigao del Norte
  301. Tuburan, Basilan
  302. Tuburan, Cebu
  303. Tudela, Cebu
  304. Tudela, Misamis Oriental
  305. Valencia, Bohol
  306. Valencia, Negros Occidental
  307. Victoria, Laguna
  308. Victoria, Northern Samar
  309. Victoria, Oriental Mindoro
  310. Victoria, Tarlac
The existence of 310 municipalities with the same name highlights the rich tapestry of local history, culture, and migration patterns. Each of these municipalities, while sharing a name, has its own unique story and identity, contributing to the diversity and richness of human settlements in the country.

Compiling a comprehensive list like this is incredibly valuable, especially for journalists navigating the complexities of Philippine geography. It's common for confusion to arise when multiple locations share the same name, leading to inaccuracies or misunderstandings in reporting. By providing a detailed breakdown of cities and municipalities with identical names but in different provinces, journalists can avoid errors and ensure accurate coverage. This effort contributes to the overall clarity and reliability of news reporting. 

Moreover, such a list serves as a helpful reference not only for journalists but also for researchers, travelers, and anyone interested in Philippine geography. It enhances understanding and awareness of the country's diverse landscape, cultural heritage, and administrative divisions. With this expanded compilation, journalists can confidently identify and distinguish between similarly named places, thereby enhancing the quality and credibility of their reporting.

Additionally, this initiative underscores the importance of precision in communication, especially in a field as critical as journalism. By acknowledging and addressing potential sources of confusion, journalists uphold professional standards and strengthen public trust in the media.

Ultimately, this compilation contributes to more accurate, informed, and nuanced storytelling about the Philippines, benefiting both journalists and their audiences.

Monday, July 01, 2024

Philippine national anthem (English)

Land of the morning,
Child of the sun returning,
With fervor burning,
Thee do our souls adore.
Land dear and holy,
Cradle of noble heroes,
Ne’er shall invaders
Trample thy sacred shore.
Ever within thy skies and through thy clouds
And o’er thy hills and sea,
Do we behold the radiance, feel and throb,
Of glorious liberty.
Thy banner, dear to all our hearts,
Its sun and stars alight,
O never shall its shining field
Be dimmed by tyrant’s might!
Beautiful land of love,
O land of light,
In thine embrace ’tis rapture to lie,
But it is glory ever, when thou art wronged,
For us, thy sons to suffer and die.

This English version was translated in the 1940s and it is based on the original Spanish version.

Monday, June 24, 2024

Fostering the Spanish language in the Philippines

A way of consistently fostering the conservation of our Spanish heritage, particularly the Spanish language, is to use Spanish loanwords.

I had a good laugh watching this clip from a Dolphy movie where Babalu interrogated Yoyong Martirez. In response to the Martirez doubting that he's a real cop, Babalu replied, "O, heto ang tarheta ko". I also remember my father using tarheta or tarjeta (to refer to smaller cards) as well, but I don't remember any other adults using it growing up, so I was surprised to see that Dolphy movie clip with Babalu. Tarheta is rarely used nowadays because, first, it is regarded as an old word, second, business cards are rarely used nowadays.

I moved some furniture to my parents' house while I was on vacation in the Philippines last December. I was helped by a nephew who referred to it as "purnityur". I told him that's English and it doesn't sound right tagalized. Try saying muebles instead of "purnityur". He did and found it easier.

Our local languages are losing more and more Spanish loanwords as time goes on. Those of us who champion preserving our past should start using these old loan words in our daily lives and encourage the young to do the same. - A

Monday, June 17, 2024

10 spending habits to break before you turn 30

  1. YOLO lifestyle The "You Only Live Once" (YOLO) lifestyle emphasizes living in the moment, often without much consideration for the future. It prioritizes experiences and immediate gratification over long-term planning and stability. While adopting a YOLO mindset can lead to adventurous and memorable experiences, it can also result in financial recklessness and neglect of important responsibilities.
  2. Impulse buying. It refers to making unplanned purchases based on sudden desires or emotions, rather than careful consideration of needs or budget. It often leads to overspending on items that may not be essential or even practical. Impulse buying can be fueled by advertising, peer pressure, or emotional triggers, and it can undermine financial goals and budgeting efforts.
  3. Borrowing money. It involves obtaining funds from a lender with the promise to repay the amount borrowed, usually with interest, at a later date. While borrowing can provide short-term financial relief or facilitate major purchases, such as homes or education, it also comes with financial obligations and risks. Excessive borrowing can lead to debt accumulation, interest payments, and potential financial strain if repayment becomes challenging.
  4. Spending to impress others. It involves making purchases with the primary goal of gaining social status or approval from peers. It often leads to conspicuous consumption, where individuals prioritize material possessions and lavish experiences to project a certain image or lifestyle. However, this behavior can result in financial insecurity, as it may encourage overspending and neglect of personal financial goals.
  5. Failing to track expenses. It refers to not monitoring or recording personal spending habits and patterns. Without accurate tracking, individuals may underestimate their expenditures, overspend in certain categories, or overlook opportunities for saving. Tracking expenses is essential for maintaining a balanced budget, identifying areas for cost-cutting, and achieving financial goals.
  6. Spending first before saving. It involves prioritizing immediate consumption over setting aside money for future goals or emergencies. This approach can lead to a cycle of living paycheck to paycheck, with little to no savings for long-term financial security. Saving should ideally precede spending, with a portion of income allocated towards savings and investments before discretionary expenses are considered.
  7. Paying for convenience all the time. It involves opting for products or services that offer convenience or time-saving benefits, even if they come at a higher cost. While convenience can be valuable in certain situations, relying excessively on convenience-based purchases can inflate expenses and strain financial resources. It's important to weigh the trade-offs between convenience and cost-effectiveness when making purchasing decisions.
  8. Credit card debt. It arises when individuals borrow money through credit cards and fail to repay the full balance by the due date. Credit cards typically charge high interest rates on unpaid balances, making it easy for debt to accumulate if payments are not made in full and on time. Carrying credit card debt can result in financial stress, lower credit scores, and long-term interest payments that hinder financial progress.
  9. Never say "no". It refers to the tendency to indulge in spending without setting limits or boundaries. It involves saying yes to every impulse or request, whether it's dining out, shopping, or participating in costly activities. Failing to exercise restraint can lead to financial overextension, strained relationships, and difficulty achieving financial goals. Learning to say "no" when necessary is essential for maintaining financial health and prioritizing long-term objectives.
  10. Spending too much on vices. It involves allocating a significant portion of income towards indulgent or addictive behaviors, such as smoking, drinking, gambling, or excessive entertainment. While vices can provide temporary pleasure or relief, overspending on them can have detrimental effects on both physical and financial well-being. It's important to balance indulgence with responsible budgeting and prioritization of essential needs and long-term goals.

Friday, June 14, 2024

From Ilagan to Manila or Baguio

Discover Convenient and Affordable Travel with Ilagan Public Utility Transport Cooperative

Are you planning a trip from the City of Ilagan to Manila or Baguio? Look no further than the Ilagan Public Utility Transport Cooperative! We offer reliable and comfortable transportation services to ensure your journey is smooth and hassle-free. Whether you’re heading to the bustling capital of Manila or the picturesque highlands of Baguio, our transport services have got you covered.

Why Choose Ilagan Public Utility Transport Cooperative?

  1. Comfortable Rides: Our fleet of well-maintained vehicles ensures that you travel in comfort and style. Each trip is designed to provide a pleasant experience, making your journey enjoyable from start to finish.

  2. Affordable Rates: We believe that quality transportation should be accessible to everyone. Our competitive rates ensure you get the best value for your money, allowing you to travel without breaking the bank.

  3. Reliable Service: Punctuality and reliability are our top priorities. Our experienced drivers and staff are committed to providing timely and dependable service, ensuring you reach your destination safely and on schedule.

  4. Convenient Reservations: Booking your trip with us is easy and convenient. Simply call us at 09364769704 or 09554778760 to reserve your seat. For those who prefer to book in person, you can visit our office at Purok 2 Osmeña, City of Ilagan, Isabela.

Travel Routes We Offer:

  • City of Ilagan to Manila: Experience the vibrant city life, explore historical sites, and indulge in the diverse culinary scene of the Philippines' capital.
  • City of Ilagan to Baguio: Enjoy the cool climate, scenic views, and cultural attractions of the Summer Capital of the Philippines.

Contact the phone numbers for Reservations:

  • Phone: 09364769704 | 09554778760
  • Office: Purok 2 Osmeña, City of Ilagan, Isabela

Don't miss out on the opportunity to travel comfortably and affordably with Ilagan Public Utility Transport Cooperative. Book your trip today and experience the convenience and reliability that our service has to offer. Whether it’s for business or leisure, we are here to make your journey as seamless and enjoyable as possible.

Safe Travels and Happy Journey!

Photos provided by Ma. Lancel Mendoza, used with permission.

Monday, June 10, 2024

Himno nacional de Filipinas (Español)

Tierra adorada
Hija del sol de oriente
Su fuego ardiente en ti latiendo está.
Patria de amores
Del heroismo cuna,
Los invasores
No te hallarán jamás.
En tu azul cielo, en tus auras,
En tus montes y en tu mar
Esplende y late el poema
De tu amada libertad.
Tu pabellón, que en las lides
La victoria iluminó
No verá nunca apagados
Sus estrellas y su sol.
Tierra de dichas, del sol y amores,
En tu regazo dulce es vivir.
Es una gloria para tus hijos,
Cuando te ofenden, por ti morir.

The music of the original Spanish version entitled "Macha Nacional Filipina" which was composed by Julian Felipe in 1898 and its lyrics adopted from the poem "Filipinas" written by Jose Palma in 1899.

Monday, June 03, 2024

Truth to be told

People may not recall the intricate details of your facial features, although it's often a concern for many. What they do remember, however, is your smile, the warmth in your eyes as they engaged with you, and the way you made them feel. They remember your kindness, your gentle demeanor, and the comfort your words provided. Your willingness to listen, understand, and offer compassion leaves a lasting impression.

While physical beauty may capture attention, it's the beauty of the heart that truly resonates with people. A beautiful face may mask an ugly heart, but a beautiful heart radiates genuine warmth and kindness. Whether others perceive this beauty depends on what they seek and value. Ultimately, it's the goodness within that leaves a lasting impact on those around you.

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To Amend or Not To Amend: That is the Question. A Debate on Charter Change.